La Xixa's work is based on the union of three methodologies: Theater of the Oppressed (TO), Process Work and Popular Education and Participatory Research-Action (IAP). These three methodologies have elements in common (they are critics insofar as they question power relations, are participatory, offer frameworks for knowledge creation, work from cyclical processes of awareness and are oriented towards social transformation in favor of a more just world). In turn, these three methodologies offer diverse tools that complement each other. Below we detail the three methods schematically.
Principal referente: Paulo Freire
Popular education is a philosophy and pedagogy based on the liberalization education concept developed by Paulo Freire in which:
a) All the agents are susceptible to teach and to learn.
b) All agents own some knowledge.
c) All the agents are subject to the process and never objects of the process.
d) All agents have equal right to speak and be heard.
e) All the agents have equal right to propose problems, options, contents and solutions.
Participatory research-action (IAP) consolidates this way of teaching-learning in a method of knowledge creation. Popular education and the IAP analyze how, in social contexts, men and women lose their humanization through non-reflection of power situations, and therefore lose their innate ability to transform (Freire, 1973).
The subjects that participate in these processes are generators of knowledge and agents of transformation simultaneously.
Popular education and IAP are based on a cycle of awareness through which we reflect-act-reflect on cultural awareness, dialogic awareness and consciousness about the structures of power.
Main reference: Augusto Boal
Theater of the Oppressed developed in the seventies by the Brazilian playwright Augusto Boal has been one of the main tools of participatory communication and for Latin American popular education movements. Unlike many aspects of the social theater, the Teatro del Oprimido (TO) is a political theater. It is a collective trial of emancipation. Based on the epistemology of the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, the TO allows us to analyze through the theater the abuses of power perpetuated and systematically perpetuated in our daily micro-structures. This methodology consists of several tools: Theater Image, Theater Forum, Legislative Theater, Rainbow of Desire, Invisible Theater and Journalistic Theater. The TO uses theater games to de-mechanize our perceptions, making us aware of our cultural filters by means of the explanation and collectivization of our own conflicts and experiences. The collectivization of the individual problems, and subsequent extrapolation to a group history, allows to look for collective alternatives to situations that are often difficult to solve from an individual position.
Forum Theatre plays are the main tool of the methodology. In Forum Theatre, the actors and actresses work on a short theatre play based on the collectivization of the own experiences of the actors and act-activists. This piece consists mainly of several characterizations: the oppressed, the oppressor, the allies and the Curinga. Curinga is the character that interacts with the public, that is, with the spectators and spectators. The postulate of the piece is that the oppressed always has the capacity for action to confront the oppressor. At the time of greater conflict, the Joker or Curinga stops the piece. Through the open dialogue on the part of the public, alternatives are proposed to try to solve the conflict on the scene. Curinga then invites the spectator or spectacle to replace one of the characters on the scene. So many alternatives as proposed are tested.
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Main reference: Arnold and Amy Mindell
Process Work (TP) or Process Oriented Psychology (POP) offers a model that integrates and uses contributions from various disciplines to facilitate transformation and growth both individual and collective. Its methodology is applied in different areas: community and organizational development, diversity and leadership training, individual and family psychotherapy, group consulting and facilitation.
Process Work focuses basically on developing a state of consciousness; That is, helping people and groups realize how they perceive and live their experiences, learn to change their approach and discover the indormation that they do not notice or marginalize and that limits their ability to respond. Much of the information we need to transform and grow is not perceived because it challenges our ordinary consciousness. Without realizing it, we marginalize certain aspects -which we call subjective- from our daily experience: emotions, longings, dreams, intuitions, fantasies, moods, etc., because they conflict with our basic belief system or with the dominant culture at the one we belong to. Therefore, we do not give ourselves permission to hear or speak about experiences that are outside the scope of our ordinary conscience and to be able to perceive signals and information of a non-ordinary reality. Fortunately, what we marginalize does not disappear, it only takes different paths to manifest itself and be taken into account, either personally or collectively. Information-like energy-is not created or lost, it only transforms; It usually takes the form of something that does not attract or disturb us. Body symptoms and illnesses, addictive tendencies and addictions, dreams or anxieties impossible, sudden accidents, relationship problems, changing or difficult moods, group conflicts, global tensions, etc. They have a "why" although their meaning or value is not initially understandable. The TP consists on the one hand of cognitive learning (theories, methods and structures) and, at the same time, involves deep internal work and a "spiritual" act that allows us to take advantage even the worst problems and the most polarized situations as opportunities to awaken our greatest women. The TP teaches us to connect with our deeper being and learn to flow creatively in the midst of extreme circumstances.
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